Is it Artefact or Artifact…

Well after an historical struggle, we finally triumphed over the Americans, as Artefact is the British spelling of the [noun] which mean that an object has been shaped & formed by humans, more so in the archaeological term…

Although Artifact is the American spelling, it was not until the early  nineteen ninety’s after a struggle between the two spellings, that “what we now know” is the “English” version, took the upper hand, after fighting throughout most of the twentieth century, this is why a lot of publications on Archaeological subjects throughout the 20th century show both spellings and can get somewhat confusing, yet historically it has always been spelt with an I, why people have to complicate matters is beyond me, as I daresay we spelt Artefact with an i first, then along came an English professor &  said grammatically it was wrong, & needs to be corrected;

 


Lead & more lead, every metal detectorist has at some stage found so much lead, it drives you nuts; from the humble musket ball to the pilgrims badge, all made from the most naturally occurring malleable substance know to man, yet has strength for its purpose, for example a musket ball being spherical, does not lose its shape when fired from a musket…

When you find a musket ball, have you ever stopped to wonder, if it was fired in anger, at another human being, & not at an animal for dinner, this could be from an unsettled period of our time, such as the revolution, when England was without a king, the conflict that pitched brother against brother or neighbour against neighbour..

Image result for musket ballsImage result for musket balls
some typical examples of size & weight are shown below;

22.92g, 0.31 inch diameter – 18thC French

40.51g, 0.776 inch 17thC English
31.02g, 0.697 inch 18thC English Musket balls are manufactured by pouring molten lead or another alloy into a two part single or a multiple cavity mould. The casting sprue is cut close to the ball and any flashing around the mould seam is shaved off. Mould seam – is a thin line around the circumference of the musket ball. Casting Sprue – a small raised cylinder from the lead inlet channel in the mould. This is usually clipped off close to the surface of the ball, If you excavate a musket ball that is round, has a mould seam and a casting sprue then it was probably dropped and not fired. However not all dropped musket balls have a mould seam or casting sprue. because lead is so soft when being transported,  various methods can erase this line by rubbing together in transit. When the diameter is measured this can be used to determine the caliber.

The difference between the ball and the caliber is known as windage. Typically the windage is approximately 0.05- 0.10mm. An example is a military British Brown Bess has a bore of 0.75 inches or 75 caliber, but would take a 0,693 inch diameter musket ball. A 69 caliber French Charleyville musket usually took a 0.63 inch ball. However, during the 17th/18thC musket balls were categorized not by diameter but as to how many musket balls would weigh a pound. For example a service British brown Bess musket took musket balls that were 29 per two pounds.


Most of us who have found a pigeon ring have at some point wondered how to read them , or maybe how to decipher the letters and numbers wrote on these tiny little things…

http://www.ehow.com/how_8462867_read-pigeon-bands.html


In the beginning you have to think about a method to log your clear identification, of your coins or artefacts, otherwise you have to keep looking up the facts, this is where these little chaps come in [more to follow on these from me] if your convinced enough & would like to buy some use the link below, the article…

http://www.britnumsoc.org/publications/Digital%20BNJ/pdfs/2001_BNJ_71_13.pdf

muddyheritage.com